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The History of Writing
(history of writing)
Writing is commonly used by billions of people each day. However, many of us don?t know the history of writing, and some of us would rather not ponder it for fear of getting a headache. Written communication is much needed today, and many societies could not survive without writing. Writing has a history like everything that is in existence today. The exact history of this form of communication may be clouded and even over exaggerated at times, but there are two known facts, writing has been used for a very long time and writing will be used for a very long time. The true beginning of writing is unknown, but it does have a comprehensive history. The first artistic paintings and writings were said to be done in the form of naturalistic paintings of animals and people in caves. The pictures were known as attempts to appease the spirits of animals that were needed to kill in the hunt.
In ancient times pictures were also done of human beings. These pictures of humans were typically done in series, with a figure appearing in different physical positions progressively, which represented positions a ceremonial dance performed by ancient people. Progressively, the early societies began to stylize their messages, which were similar to using symbols to represent restrooms, handicap-accessible places, and international road signs. These stylized symbols are known a petroglyphs and hieroglyphs. The most famous system of hieroglyphs belonged to the ancient Egyptians who had hieroglyphics that were partially representational pictures that were stylized. Petrogylphs were often used by Native Americans as messages along trade routes, ritual information, and various other things. However, they were not as sophisticated as hieroglyphs. During this ancient period, Europeans preserved esoteric knowledge in runes and in an alphabetic writing system known as ogham.
The Chinese culture also has a place in the history of writing. The culture began by writing like many others by using pictures then slowly moving to stylized pictures. However, over time the pictures became less representational and more abstract. Today, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other Asian languages are written with the use of ideeographs. An ideeograph is used to represent an idea instead of a word. Around 1700 B.C. a new form of writing appeared in the Middle Eastern cultures. During this time, the Phoenicians created an alphabet. This development was different from all others because the symbols represented sounds, not pictures or ideas. The combinations of sounds made up the words of the language, which was crucial in the history of writing. The alphabet developed by the Phoenicians spread to Northern Africa and became the system of the Arabs, and spread northwest to Greece. The Greek developed their own letters, which were modified even more to become the Cyrillic alphabets of Russia, the Balkans and the Romans. The Romans modified the alphabet and made it the alphabet that is recognized today.
The history of writing developed even further into the 20th century. Following World War II, the Japanese and Chinese began to use the alphabet to represent the sounds of their languages. For these Asian cultures, the alphabetic system was easier to write by hand and to print economically, so it made life far simpler for those cultures. The artistic form of writing used by these Asian cultures will likely never die, but there are many advantages to using an alphabetic system, and many modern people of these cultures benefit handsomely from learning to read and write using the current alphabet. The history of writing is long and sometimes vague, but it can be seen as a necessary teaching that will help modern societies understand the importance of written communication, and understand how the world would be forever changed without it.
What Career Coaching Can Do to Help Land a Better Job A career coach is something many people have heard of but few actually understand what they do. Career coaching has become more popular in recent years, and they are actually used by many people who already are employed to help them stay on the right track in their career. If you are looking for a job, however, and especially if your job search is proving difficult and painful, a career coach might be just what you need to get your search on track. Career coaches get a lot of flack by trade. Some people laugh them off as the latest in the line of self help gurus that people spend a lot of money to see, often with mixed results. To some people, career coaches are up there with psychoanalysts and personal trainers ? accessories of the rich but not very relevant to your every day kind of person. This assessment of career coaches might not be entirely fair, however. Career coaches can, and have, helped tons of people get on the right track in their job searches and have helped even more people not only find a job, but find a career that they love. So, just what can a career coach do for you? If you are job hunting within a certain industry, a career coach can help you narrow down your choices while simultaneously making sure you are putting your best foot forward when you go out there on the hunt. Sometimes, especially if you have been in a field for a long time, the skills you are highlighting on your resume are stale or the language you use to talk about your work history is outdated. In addition, a career coach can help you make sure that when you go into a job interview you can present yourself as on top of the latest developments in the field and as a person who could jump right into the job without needing a lot of training or guidance. The same goes for someone who is trying to get a job in a new field. A career coach will give you pointers about that field and the companies in the field as well as giving you general advice about the typical culture of that business ? what kind of lingo is used, where the industry is centered, who the big players are, and even how to dress for your interview so that you look the part. Career coaches can also make sure your resume is in order and showing off your skills in the best light possible. This help a career coach provides when you know what kind of job you are looking for is all well and good, but they can do even more when you know you need a job, but you just don?t know what you want to do. If you have been frustrated in your career goals in the past, a career coach will work with you to decide exactly what kind of job you really want to have. They can help you figure out which industries are best suited to your interests, your skills and your personality. If you want to start your own business, they can walk you through the process from start to finish. A good career coach could be the key to finding the career of your dreams instead of just one more job. Last but not least, a career coach can let you know what you are doing wrong in your career. Do you have a problem with your interpersonal working relationships, or are you bad at delegating so you always end up doing all of the work? A career coach will work with your to set these problems right. When you need a better job, a career coach can clear the path for job improvement.
A Brief Guide to Writing Short Stories Effectively (writing short stories) A short story is basically a condensed version of a book or a rapidly progressing story. It has fewer characters than a novel and covers less amount of time. A short story generally is around 6,000 words or 6 pages. Do your research and organization before you begin to write. Outline your plot and the background. Make sure they make sense and flow together. Individually list the events of the story in the order in which they occur. Create your characters. Not just their name and role in the story, but as if they were real people with real lives. By creating more information for your characters you will get a sense of what they would do or how they would be and convey that to your writing. By creating an outline you will have a point of reference to look back upon and make sure you have included all vital points of the story. When writing a short story, you will need a captivating first paragraph. You have roughly 5 to 7 lines to appeal to your reads unlike novels that have the whole first chapter. This can actually make or break your story. You will need to grab their attention and keep it to make them want to read more. By starting the plot in the first few sentences it will make people want to know more. They will keep reading to find out who is involved and why. Keep the timeline of events brief. You are writing a short story and the timeline should match that. A timeline of a day, a week, or maybe even a month is generally the span a story should cover. Use character dialogue as a way to move the plot ahead. In a short story there is no time for general chitchat. By using the character dialogue you are deepening the plot as well as moving it along. Do not add unnecessary characters. By adding them you are wasting time one someone that is not linked to your story or its plot. Provide swift and precise details to keep the story moving. Elaborate descriptions of characters, plot, or surroundings will only waste your words and are not essential to making a good story. Use short words instead of phrases that mean the same thing. Building to the climax should be most of the story. Keep the conflicts building to the climax simple and easy to understand. You writing should be able to evoke the following emotions empathy, pain, hurt, despair, surprise, and desire just to name a few. Since the story is only a few pages long in its entirety it is necessary to maintain consistency through out the beginning, middle, and end. Make sure the dialog and plot complement each other. Keep the same point of view through out the story. You are almost ready to be published. After completing your own proofreading and editing, let someone else read it, a neighbor, your spouse, colleague, or a close friend. Even if they are not writers themselves they will be able to help point out any grammar errors. They will be able to tell you if something just doesn?t make sense. You are trying to fit a lot of captivating information in a small space; it is easy to leave something out. Something you may not catch because you know what is supposed to happen, while your will not. By following these simple rules, you will be able to write a short story that is captivating and effective. Writing short stories isn?t for everyone. Many writers like more detail and for short stories the space is just not available.